Brf3 Molecular Geometry

Molecular Geometry of Bromine Trifluoride

Bromine trifluoride is a strong interhalogen that is mainly used as a powerful fluorinating agent. This substance is commonly established in liquid form and has a stingy odor. BrF3 is the chemical formula for this substance. The bond formation, bond angles, and hybridization are all created by the chemical bonds between Bromine and Fluorine.

And to better understand the BrF3 molecular geometry, our team did a little research regarding the molecular structure and if it’s a polar or non-polar molecule.

Molecular Geometry of BrF3: An Overview

With two lone pairs of electrons and three bonded pairs of electrons, BrF3 is a great example of an AX5 molecule. Each fluorine atom contains nine electrons, while the outer shell of the Bromine molecule has seven valence electrons, three of which form bonds with three fluorine atoms. There are three bound pairs of electrons and two lone pairs as a result of this.

The central atom is Br. There are three bond pairs because three fluorine atoms encircle the central atom, the Br. Looking at its Lewis Structure or the valence electron concept, the valence electrons of Fluorine and Bromine atom are both seven. 

Molecular Geometry of BrF3: An Overview

Due to the repulsion caused by the bonded pairs, it results from having a T shape.

Name of Molecule

Bromine Trifluoride (BrF3)

Molecular Mass

136.89921g/mol.

Dipole Moment

1.19D

Bond Angle

86.2°

Hybridization

sp3d

Molecular Geometry/Shape

T-shape or Trigonal Bipyramidal

What You Need To Know

What You Need To Know

BrF3 Electron Geometry

BrF3 is a great example of an AX5 molecule. Each fluorine atom contains nine electrons, while the outer shell of the Bromine molecule has seven valence electrons, wherein three of which form bonds with three fluorine atoms. 

According to the VSEPR theory, the molecule’s molecular shape should be trigonal pyramidal (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory). Still, there is a bend in the molecule’s structure, making it T-shaped, to reduce repulsion between the lone pairs.

Is BrF3 Polar or Nonpolar?

Considering the huge difference in the electronegativity value of fluorine and bromine atoms, BrF3 is considered a polar molecule. 

The lone pairs are built in the triangle’s plane, causing an unequal dispensation of negative charge all over the center bromine atom, making the bond highly polar. As a result, bromine trifluoride is classified as polar.

BrF3 Bond Angle

BrF3 has a T-shaped or trigonal bipyramidal shape with a bond angle of 86.2°. The angle is developed because the electron pairs repel one another more strongly than the Br-F bonds. The MO theory is concerned with an electron pair’s energy and spatial properties. It also discusses the linear combination of atomic orbitals to generate molecular orbitals.

The electrical repulsion between lone pairs and bond pairs causes shape distortion. Because of this, it results in the bent shape due to lone pairs spreading out more in space results in tight bond angles as compared to a perfect trigonal bipyramid.

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BrF3 Hybridization

Orbital hybridization is a key concept in the chapter on chemical bonding, where we look at how different atomic orbitals combine and fuse to build hybridized orbitals that form bonds. To figure out the hybridization of bromine trifluoride, look at the electron configuration of the bromine atom, which is the center atom.

However, certain electrons in Bromine are moved to 4d-orbitals to make bonds with fluorine atoms. But it makes no difference if an electron shares a single bond.

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Fluorine has a higher oxidative capacity than Bromine, and because of this, it compels Bromine to promote electrons. And if you’re wondering how many valence electrons does brf3 have, it has a total of 28 electrons according to its Lewis Structure. [1] 

In its outermost shell, BrF3 has seven electrons. It also contains two lone pairs and three covalent bonds after bond formation. The hybridization value of the electron pair is 5, resulting in sp3d hybrid orbitals. The hybridization is sp3d as a result.

BrF3 Uses

Bromine trifluoride as a fluorinating agent and a strong ionizing inorganic solvent is due to the three f atoms linked together. It’s a pale yellow interhalogen liquid with a strong odor. It dissolves in sulfuric acid and can cause chemical reactions between water and organic molecules. [2] 

Halogens are atoms of Bromine and fluorine. Bromine Trifluoride hybridization can be used as a fluorinating agent because its entire molecule is a solid interhalogen compound. It comes in the shape of a clear to golden liquid with a strong odor.

In Summary

Bromine trifluoride is a strong fluorinating agent. It forms a T-shaped or trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry and a bond angle of 86.2°. In the Lewis Structure of BrF3, the total valence electrons of fluorine and Bromine are seven. Also, they both have seven electrons in their outermost shells. 

Also, BrF3 isn’t a trigonal planar at all. BrF3 has single pairs at the center atom, whereas a compound’s center atom should not have a lone pair to be trigonal planar. Through this information, you will be able to know BrF3’s molecular geometry and its other fundamentals.

References: 

  1. https://terpconnect.umd.edu/~wbreslyn/chemistry/Lewis-Structures/lewis-structure-for-BrF3.html
  2. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/24594
Sarah Pace

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